Countering Textbook Distortion: War Atrocities in Asia, 1937-1945. Francine. 23One of the controversial subjects to concern the majority of Japanese textbooks pertains to the composition of pirate bands known as Wakō, which the Tsukuru‑kai textbook describes as follows: Wakō were bands of pirates who raided the coastlines of Korea and China during this period. It should be noted, however, that some Korean researchers, while still in the minority, suggest placing the Seikan‑ron in a wider context and seeing it as the result of the Meiji government’s policy aimed at reorganising the Asian order by establishing unequal relations with China and Korea, as evidenced by the treaties signed with these two countries; Ch’oe Sŏgwan 최석완, Pip’aengch’ang juŭiron ŭi hwaksan kwa munjechŏm: Chŏnghannon kwa Ch’ŏng‑Il chŏnjaeng ŭl parabonŭn sigak 비팽창주의론의 확산과 문제점 : 정한론과 청일전쟁을 바라보는 시각 (The Dissemination of Anti‑Expansionist Discourses and Problems: Opinions on the Seikanron and the Sino‑Japanese War) in Yi Kyehwang et al., op. Au‑delà des accusations réciproques de « déformer » l’histoire, l’analyse comparative des sujets de controverse dans les principaux manuels des deux pays révèle que les divergences sont bien moindres que les frictions diplomatiques engendrées par cette crise ne le suggéraient. Japanese scholars provide a relatively similar analysis. It should not be conflated with historical revisionism, a broader term that extends to newly evidenced, fairly reasoned academic reinterpretations of history.. Moreover, while Toyotomi Hideyoshi was not devoid of territorial ambitions regarding the “continent”, including China, his overriding motive was to channel the discontent of all the Japanese left out of the country’s unification and reorganisation process, most of all the warriors.47. They considered Korea’s refusal of Japan’s requests to open its doors insulting. Admittedly, the textbook controversy has convinced many Chinese that Japan has still not managed to rid itself of its militarist demons and that this anomaly is liable to recur. See, (War and Peace in Early‑modern Relations Between Japan and Korea: Hideyoshi’s Invasions and the Communication Envoys). Admittedly, no Korean embassy had been sent to Japan since 1811; however, this is no way signified that the two countries had broken off relations. 1Since the 1980s, relations within East Asia have been hit on several occasions by controversies surrounding Japanese history textbooks.1 The first crisis arose in 1982 during the screening process for new history textbooks. 80 This statement was made in August 1993 by Kōno Yōhei, the Miyazaki administration’s Chief Cabinet Secretary, concerning the result of an investigation undertaken by the Japanese government on this issue; “Ianfu kankei chōsa kekka happyō ni kan suru Kōnō naikaku kanbō‑chōkan danwa” 慰安婦関係調査結果発表に関する河野内閣官房長官談話 (Statement by Chief Cabinet Secretary Kōnō Regarding the Announced Results of the Comfort Women Investigation), http://www.mofa.go.jp/MOFAJ/area/taisen/kono.html (25 October 2008). In other words, the envoys’ objective was not to pay tribute to the. cit., p. 33. Sarah, “Politics of the Victim/Victor Complex: Interpreting South Korea’s National Fur. cit., p. 251. Japanese History Textbook Raises Concerns Asia Today, 10 July 2001. 60In 2001, Japan’s two main textbooks, Tōkyō Shoseki and Ōsaka Shoseki, were among six textbooks (out of eight) that claimed, according to the Korean government, that Yamato had ruled Kaya and the south of the peninsula82. Certainly, voices in Japan continue to question whether or not these women were forcibly enlisted, but they have not challenged the Japanese government’s official position as represented by the “Kōno Statement” (Kōno danwa. According to Korean specialists, another example of this idea is the “Debate over an Expedition to Korea” (Seikanron, ) during the early Meiji era. […] Claiming [kusil 口實] to require passage through Korea in order to conquer the Ming, he sent more than 200,000 soldiers.46, 33Here the conquest of China is presented as nothing more than an excuse to justify an invasion that in reality targeted Korea. ), op. 83 In 451, Sei of the Wa is said to have obtained Chinese recognition of his role as protector of the Mimana region. On the other hand, the lack of explanation concerning Korea’s refusal “to establish diplomatic relations with the Meiji government” is partly responsible for making this refusal the main cause of the “calls to open Korea by force”. University professors or lecturers, these examiners are hired on the recommendation of previous examiners or members of the Authorisation Council according to criteria that remain vague and place a question mark over the examiners’ impartiality.16, 11The actual selection of junior high school textbooks varies according to the type of school. Although it was only adopted by a tiny minority of junior high schools,2 this textbook provoked a virulent reaction among Japan’s neighbouring countries, in particular the People’s Republic of China and South Korea. It was the first in a series of materials published under the supervision of the United States. Unlike the joint history textbook used by French and German senior high school students since 2006, none of the three countries has adopted this book as a textbook. (The Historical Domain), Ōsaka Shoseki, 2006, p. 160. 73This perception of Japan‑Korea relations is coupled with a “national frustration” with the former coloniser. Secondly, the textbook’s silence as to the two countries’ objectives and the suggestion that these missions were sent merely to pay respect to the new shōguns. 332‑333. 19‑43. See Asahi Shinbun (17 January 2008). This does not mean that this episode in the two countries’ shared history is not a controversial subject. According to this book, the “communication envoys” were invited to Edo by Japan where they “carried out intense diplomatic activities, notably by meeting with the shōgun”. Progress remains tentative, however, since the textbooks in question are aimed at senior high school students for use in optional classes, unlike the classes in national history (Kuksa. 47 Kim Munja 김문자, “Chŏnjaeng kwa p’yŏnghwa ŭi kŭnse Han‑Il kwan’gye: Imjin Waeran kwa t’ongsinsa” 전쟁과 평화의 근세 한일 관계: 임진돼란과 통신사 (War and Peace in Early‑modern Relations Between Japan and Korea: Hideyoshi’s Invasions and the Communication Envoys) in Yi Kyehwang 이계황 et al., op. Such remarks suggest close, yet egalitarian, relations between Yamato and Kaya characterised by exchange rather than the domination of Kaya by Yamato. To date, six textbooks by independent publishing houses have obtained this authorisation.21 Progress remains tentative, however, since the textbooks in question are aimed at senior high school students for use in optional classes, unlike the classes in national history (Kuksa 國史), which are compulsory. The same variety of opinions can be found in Korea, in addition to a few more original theories: these include Kim Sŏkhyŏng, who in the 1960s claimed that the Nihon‑fu was located in Japan and not on the Korean peninsula, or Ch’ŏn Kwanu and Kim Hyŏngu, for whom this organ was a sort of headquarters of the Paekche army stationed in Kaya. Liu Jie 劉傑, Mitani Hiroshi 三谷博, Yang Daqing 楊大慶 (eds. for the damage and suffering inflicted on Asian countries subjected to Japanese colonial rule and aggression. ) 49 On this subject see the article and translation by Vincent Grépinet, Cipango no. Korea’s complaints essentially focused on statements that were “technically correct” but potentially misleading. The Third World Congress of Education International, meeting in Jomtien, Thailand, from 25 to 29 July, 2001: 1. They were forced to live an inhumane life as comfort women. 74 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi, 2002, p. 263. In 2002 the usage rates for these junior high school textbooks were as follows: Tōkyō Shoseki, (New Society, History), Tōkyō Shoseki, 2006. In this way, the three kingdoms introduced an advanced culture to Japan, which greatly contributed to the development of ancient Japanese culture during the Asuka period.86, 64This succession of terms such as “teach” and “introduce” did not fail to rile the Japanese far right, which condemned Korea’s propensity to emphasise the cultural superiority of the Three Kingdoms over Japan during this period (6th century).87 From its opening pages the Korean textbook painted a picture of Japan‑Korea relations which basically consisted of two images: on the one hand a Korea that generously introduced its advanced culture to Japan, and on the other, a Japan that repaid Korea with aggression.88. China Radio International reported that the PRC government and people were "strongly indignant about and dissatisfied with the new Japanese history textbook for the year 2002 compiled by right-wing Japanese scholars". 63This evolution is not restricted to Japanese textbooks. to require passage through Korea in order to conquer the Ming, he sent more than 200,000 soldiers. ), Chōsen no rekishi 朝鮮の歴史, Sansei‑dō 三省堂, 1995, pp. 68In this context, governments should show restraint and leave the task of solving the textbook problem to history and education specialists. They see this as best evidenced by the existence of the “Japanese Embassy” in Pusan.67, 49Thus, Korea had not refused to “open up” but merely to change the nature of the friendly relations it had maintained since the beginning of the Edo period. A comparison of the main textbooks currently in use in the two countries will enable me to determine the extent to which their content has changed since the 2001 crisis. Such outcome would … Unlike the joint history textbook used by French and German senior high school students since 2006, none of the three countries has adopted this book as a textbook. http://www.tv‑asahi.co.jp/asanama/video/0105/mail/inde, The government maintained this policy three years later by refraining from reiterating its demands for changes to be made to the Japanese textbooks approved in 2005, including the, . The question of the legality of the annexation treaties is, as Arnaud Nanta has pointed out, a divisive subject for Japanese and Korean historians. These factors explain the deep‑seated resentment and distrust shown by Koreans towards a Japan that has never truly shown signs of repentance and is still seen as a threat. The Korean government seems to have understood this, as illustrated by the events of 2002, when the screening process for senior high school history textbooks led the Korean media to denounce new “distortions”, notably the Saishin Nishon‑shi 最新日本史textbook’s claim that the island of Takeshima/Tokto was part of Japan. The authorisation system was abandoned in order to standardise history education, leaving one single national history textbook. 61Note that no clear mention is made of the establishment of a base or “Japanese colony” in Korea, the textbook now contenting itself with an allusion to the Yamato king’s claims to power in southern Korea.83, 62As for the Ōsaka Shoseki textbook, it merely points out the links (tsunagari) between the Yamato court and the states making up the Kaya region, which were used by the latter to resist neighbouring Paekche and Silla.84 Such remarks suggest close, yet egalitarian, relations between Yamato and Kaya characterised by exchange rather than the domination of Kaya by Yamato. ), in, It should be noted, however, that some Korean researchers, while still in the minority, suggest placing the, in a wider context and seeing it as the result of the Meiji government’s policy aimed at reorganising the Asian order by establishing unequal relations with China and Korea, as evidenced by the treaties signed with these two countries; Ch’oe Sŏgwan, Pip’aengch’ang juŭiron ŭi hwaksan kwa munjechŏm: Chŏnghannon kwa Ch’ŏng‑Il chŏnjaeng ŭl parabonŭn sigak, (The Dissemination of Anti‑Expansionist Discourses and Problems: Opinions on the Seikanron and the Sino‑Japanese War). Comparison with succeeding editions of the textbooks indicates that both sides have drawn the conclusions to avoid a similar crisis. This idea is echoed by many Korean historians: , p. 283) is far more factual than the Korean textbook and devotes little space to Hideyoshi’s unknown motives. The removal of all allusions to the fact that voices within Korea accepted the annexation is one striking example. ), Shūei‑sha 集英社, 2004, p. 130. Curiously, just like its Japanese counterparts, the Korean textbook devotes little space to explaining why diplomatic relations between the two countries were resumed. (17 January 2008). 29 Atarashii shakai, Rekishi 新しい社会 歴史 (New Society, History), Tōkyō Shoseki, 2006, p. 160; Rekishiteki bun’ya 歴史的分野 (The Historical Domain), Ōsaka Shoseki, 2006, p. 160. 27 Atarashii rekishi kyōkasho, op. This evolution is not restricted to Japanese textbooks. 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